Motion detection using Markov Random field

Comparing to fixed-threshold hypothesis test, using variable-threshold hypothesis test with MRF is more effective due to the variable-threshold depending on neighbors.

Original video
Variable-threshold with first-order MRF
Variable-threshold with second-order MRF
Although we can use opening and closing to remove stick outs and filling holes, it makes more sense to use MRF because which use neighbors to adjust the threshold.